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Climate Outlook

AFRICA June - November 2002

Issued: May 2002

The IRI has prepared this experimental Climate Outlook for Africa for June - November 2002. Of relevance in the preparation of this outlook is the prediction of warmer than average conditions in the equatorial Pacific for the next 6 to 9 months. Currently the sea surface temperatures (SSTs) across much of the eastern and central equatorial are near their long-term average (SSTs), although warmer than average SSTs are in place near the coast of Peru and Ecuador and warmer than average SSTs persist in the central and western part of the basin. Weakly warm equatorial Pacific SST conditions (approximately 0.5 C) are in effect for the first seasons of the forecast, June-August 2002, July-September 2002. The eastern Pacific is predicted to become progressively warmer, attaining the level of a weak El Nino (SSTs between 0.5 and 1 degree C above normal) by the end of the forecast period, September-November 2002. Note that this prediction for a weak El Nino is that given by one ENSO prediction model. It is described here because it served as the boundary forcing for the following climate forecast, which is primarily based on dynamical global climate models. This should not be confused with the IRI's ENSO Statement September-November 2002, which while indicating an enhanced potential for an El Nino to develop in 2002 also highlights the uncertainty still present in the prediction at this time. In the other tropical oceans, warmer than average SSTs continue to dominate much of the Indian Ocean, and are not expected to decrease as rapidly as suggested by the SST predictions. However, the actual long-term evolution of the Indian Ocean SSTs is difficult to foresee at this time. The area of above-average temperature in the tropical south Atlantic Ocean is expected to persist through at least the first half of the forecast period.


This Outlook was prepared using the following procedures and information:

A) Coupled ocean-atmosphere model predictions of tropical Pacific SST covering the forecast period. Particularly heavy weighting has been given to predictions from the coupled model operated by the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Climate Modeling Branch. This model suggests a continuation of near-average conditions during the first forecast season. The forecast for near-neutral conditions is consistent with some, but not all, numerical and statistical forecasts of central and eastern Pacific SSTs.

B) Forecasts of the tropical Indian ocean using a statistical model developed by the IRI.

C) Global atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) predictions of the atmospheric response to the present and predicted sea-surface temperature patterns.

D) Other sources of information include NASA's Seasonal to Interannual Prediction Project (GSFC-NASA) and also seasonal prediction research at COLA.

The procedures, models, and data used to derive this Climate Outlook may be somewhat different from those used by the national meteorological services in the region. Thus, this product may differ from the official forecasts issued in those areas. The Climate Outlook for June - November 2002 is dependent on the accuracy of the SST predictions. For the tropical Pacific, these predictions can be expected to provide useful information, but there is some uncertainty concerning the evolution of SSTs. Spread (variation) in global SST predictions is a source of uncertainty in the Outlook provided here. In particular, the forecasts for the tropical Indian and Atlantic oceans have been an important influence on the forecasts over Africa. Note that even if perfectly accurate SST forecasts were possible, there would still be uncertainty in the climate forecast due to chaotic internal variability of the atmosphere. These uncertainties are reflected in the probabilities given in the forecast.

It is stressed that the current status of seasonal-to-interannual climate forecasting allows prediction of spatial and temporal averages, and does not fully account for all factors that influence regional and national climate variability. This Outlook is relevant only to seasonal time scales and relatively large areas; local variations should be expected, and variations within the 3-month period should also be expected. For further information concerning this and other guidance products, users are strongly advised to contact their National Meteorological Services.


This Outlook covers four seasons: June-August 2002, July-September 2002, August-Octover 2002 and September-November 2002. Maps are given showing tercile probabilities of precipitation and temperature. The maps for precipitation indicate the probabilities that the seasonal precipitation will fall into the wettest third of the years (top number), the middle third of the years (middle number), or the driest third of the years (bottom number). The color shading indicates the probability of the most dominant tercile -- that is, the tercile having the highest forecast probability. The color bar alongside the map defines these dominant tercile probability levels. The upper side of the color bar shows the colors used for increasingly strong probabilities when the dominant tercile is the above-normal tercile, while the lower side shows likewise for the below-normal tercile. The gray color indicates an enhanced probability for the near-normal tercile (nearly always limited to 40%). As before, numbers and their associated histograms show the probabilities of the three terciles. In areas with lots of spatial detail, there may not be sufficient room on the map, to allow histograms for each region. In those cases, some idea of the probabilities may be gained from the color alone. A qualitative outlook of climatology ("C") indicates that there is no basis for favoring any particular category. Areas that are marked by "D" represent regions for which less than 3cm of precipitation typically occurs over the season. Otherwise, for example, in the case of central Sudana in June-August 2002 (Map A), there is a 25% probability that the precipitation will be in the wettest third of the years, a 35% chance it will be in the near-normal third of the years, and a 40% chance that the precipitation will be in the driest third of the years.

Maps of temperature show expected probabilities that the seasonal temperatures will fall into the warmest third of the years, the middle third of the years, or the coldest third of the years (Map A). The numbers for each region on the temperature maps indicate the probabilities of temperatures to fall in each of the three categories, above-, near-, and below-normal.

An additional precipitation map is provided for the first season indicating probabilities for extreme precipitation anomalies. Extremes are defined as anomalies that fall within the top and bottom 15th percentile of the observed records. A priori, there is a 15% probability of being within the extremely wet category, and a 15% probability of being within the extremely dry category, leaving a 70% probability that the precipitation will not be extreme. The maps indicate areas of increased risk of extreme precipitation totals. Three levels of increased risk are defined: slightly enhanced risk, enhanced risk, and greatly enhanced risk. For slightly enhanced risk, there is a 25-40% probability that precipitation will be within the indicated extreme, i.e. wet or dry. This represents an approximate doubling of the climatological risk. For enhanced risk, there is a 40-50% probability that precipitation will be within the indicated extreme. This represents an approximate tripling of the climatological risk. For greatly enhanced risk, the probability that precipitation will be within the indicated extreme exceeds 50%, i.e. the indicated extreme is the most likely outcome. A similar map is provided in the first season indicating probabilities of extreme temperature anomalies.

Boundaries between sub-regions should be considered as transition zones, and their location considered to be only qualitatively correct.

June-August 2002 through September-November 2002:

The following discussion briefly describes the probability anomaly forecasts:


Slightly enhanced or enhanced probabilities for above normal precipitation are forecast for the vicinity of Gabon southern Cameroon for all four forecast periods, in part as a response to above normal sea surface temperatures off their west coast that are expected to only slowly return toward normal. The same forecast is in effect for part of Niger for the last three forecast periods and for northern Democratic Republic of the Congo, southern Sudan and western Uganda. Slightly enhanced or enhanced probabilities for below normal precipitation are forecast for northern Ethiopia and central Sudan, as well as southwestern South Africa, for the first two forecast periods, and for parts of Morocco and northern Algeria for the second and third forecast period.

Temperature Various levels of enhanced probabilities for above normal temperature is forecast for most of Africa for the first three forecast periods, lessening slightly for the fourth period. The only instance of an enhanced probability for below normal temperature is for the first forecast period for the western portion of the Guinea coast from Senegal to Liberia. This tilt toward below normal is expected in response to an area of below normal SST off that coast that has recently replaced strongly above normal SST. We have no assurance that this cool SST will persist beyond the next month or two.

OBSERVED CLIMATOLOGY DATA for Jun-Jul-Aug, Jul-Aug-Sep, Aug-Sep-Oct and Sep-Oct-Nov

PrecipitationJJA, JAS, ASO, SON
TERCILE THRESHOLDS (33%-ile & 67%-ile): Temperature - JJA, JAS, ASO, SON
PrecipitationJJA, JAS, ASO, SON
EXTREME THRESHOLDS (15%-ile & 85 %-ile): Temperature - JJA, JAS, ASO, SON
PrecipitationJJA, JAS, ASO, SON


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